Lead Belly: How many versions of „Easy Rider“ (See See Rider, C.C. Rider) did Lead Belly record?

Answer: Probably about five.

But aha! This is another update to my Complete Discography of Lead Belly recordings. This time, a contradiction was spotted by Bernard Sigaud.

My list used to have a take of „Easy Rider (See See Rider“ for the session of May 1944 (appearing on DOCD-5310 and SFW40045) and another take, „Easy Rider“, for June 1946 (appearing on DOCD-5311 and SFW40201). Bernard noticed that these two takes seem to be the exact same take.

And he’s right!

When I went throught the available documentation, there seems to be an uncertainty or a mistake for the May 1944-session (and its following documentation) that goes something like this:

The take certainly stems from some mid-1940s session Lead Belly made for Moses Asch – this much was always known, but the details of those sessions seemed to be unclear for a long time. The title „Easy Rider (See See Rider)-1“ does show up in the discography by Wolfe/Lornell (1992) for the session in May 1944, but this session does have the Wolfe/Lornell disclaimer „[It is uncertain if these selections were recorded at the same session]“. Wolfe/Lornell give the 1950-Folkways LP 4 (or 2034 or FP34) as the first appearance of this track. They note the title „Easy Rider-2“ for June 1946, with an non-label „Disc 5501“ as first source.

These two takes mentioned separately by Wolfe/Lornell are the same take in question.

The liner notes of the first big CD-reissue of Folkways FP34, which is SFW40045, follow Wolfe/Lornell and also note the „Easy Rider“ take as from May 1944.

Liner notes Bourgeois Blues – Lead Belly Legacy Vol. 2, Smithsonian Folkways 40045

The Document Records CD DOCD-5310 also reproduces this and puts the take at May 1944. Now, as Wolfe/Lornell noted, there was always doubt about the tracks of this May 1944-session: „[It is uncertain if these selections were recorded at the same session]“. As it turns out, the discography by Fancourt/McGrath (2006) does list a number of songs from FP34, but „Easy Rider“ is not to be found there. But the title „Easy rider (See see rider)-1“ does show up for June 1946, with „Disc 5501?, Fw FP 34“ as source. The later Folkways Collection SFW40201 notes „Easy Rider“ as from June 1946 with Folkways 2034 (FP34) as the first appearance.

Liner notes Lead Belly – The Smithsonian Folkways Collection, Smithsonian Folkways 40201

So in both instances, this would be the take that Wolfe/Lornell had placed for May 1944. The Document Records DOCD-5311 simply works with this information and uses the take as from June 1946.
The mistake seems to be simple: Folkways mistakenly placed the take in 1944 for its first issue in 1950 and there was contradictory information in Wolfe/Lornell with an „Easy Rider“-take for May 1944 and for June 1946. As this turned out to be the same take, it was obviously concluded at some point (I don’t know anything about the specifics) that there was no „Easy Rider“-take for May 1944 after all.
The placement of the take on DOCD-5310 is therefore misplaced and outdated – at least that’s what the documents say now. It would be interesting to have a look at the documentation to find out when the knowledge arose that this mid-1940s Asch-recording of „Easy Rider“ wasn’t from 1944 but from 1946. But I have no idea.

Short take away:

  1. There is (as of now) no „Easy Rider“-take from May 1944.
  2. DOCD-5310 and SFW40045 mistakenly list an „Easy Rider“ -take from May 1944.
  3. DOCD-5311 contains the same take, listed for June 1946.
  4. SFW40201 contains the same take, listed for June 1946.

I deleted the „Easy Rider“-entry in my list for May 1944 and put a note for the version of June 1946.

Thanks, Bernard!

Lead Belly: His complete Victor/Bluebird recordings

How to acquire all recordings Lead Belly made for the Victor Records label (absorbed by RCA Records in 1929) and its subsidiary label Bluebird Records? Lead Belly recorded for Victor RCA/Bluebird on two dates: June 15th and June 17th of 1940 (a saturday and a monday, as it happens), a total of 27 known tracks.

The Lead Belly collection Take This Hammer – The Secret History of Rock & Roll (Bluebird 82876 50957 2 or RCA 50957), the fifth volume of Bluebird series When the Sun Goes Down sometimes has the claim to sport „The Complete RCA Victor Recordings“.

This is one track short of the truth: While it does have the unissued first take „Grey Goose“ (Victor 051327-1), it misses the alternate take of „Grey Goose (Take 2)“ (Victor 051327-2). These are often mistaken for one another, as the vocal performances of Lead Belly and the Golden Gate Jubilee Quartet were very precise – but apart from slightly different speeds (which could be due to pitch differences), some of the Quartet vocalists do notably different things in the background on the two tracks.

This track, „Grey Goose (Take 2)“ can almost exclusively be found on Document Records „Too Late, Too Late“: More Newly Discovered Titles And Alternate Takes, Volume 6 (1924-1946) (DOCD-5461).

There are two more Document Records that contain Victor/Bluebird recordings: Complete Recorded Works 1939-1947 In Chronological Order: Volume 1 (1 April 1939 To 15 June 1940) (DOCD-5226) and Complete Recorded Works 1939-1947 In Chronological Order: Volume 2 (17 June 1940 To Summer 1943) (DOCD-5227).

These are excellent compilations that contain many other Lead Belly tracks that you can almost exclusively get on them – so you need them. But they do not contain two tracks from the Victor sessions that are available on Take This Hammer: versions of „Yellow Gal“ and „Julianne Johnson“.

This creates one of the more unfortunate overlap situations for Lead Belly: If you get all three Document Records compilations (which you should), you’ll need to get Bluebird’s Take This Hammer for just two tracks.

This is a problem that nowadays can be solved through downloads, I guess, but then you miss out of the liner notes. Here is the tabella for Lead Belly’s Victor/Bluebird sessions:

Lead Belly’s Victor/Bluebird Recordings
No. / SourceTitleDocumentothersRemarks
New York June 15, 1940  Huddie Ledbetter   vocal/guitar with speech-1
051295-1, Victor 27268Pick A Bale Of CottonDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051296- , Victor unissuedYellow GalRCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye; RCA 50957 notes it as „051296-1“
051297-, Victor unissuedWhoa Back, BuckDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051298-1, VictorMidnight SpecialDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051299-1, Victor 27268Alabama BoundDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051500-1, VictorRock Island LineDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051501-, Bluebird B8791Good Morning BluesDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051502-, Bluebird B8791Leaving BluesDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051503-1, VictorT.B. BluesDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051504-, Bluebird B8709Red Cross Store BluesDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051505-, Bluebird B8550Sail On, Little Girl, Sail OnDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051506-, Bluebird B8709RobertaDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051507-, Bluebird B8559AlbertaDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051508-1, VictorI’m on My Last Go RoundDOCD-5226RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
New York June 17, 1940  Huddie Ledbetter   vocal/guitar with speech-1
051322-1, Victor Easy RiderDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051323-1, Bluebird B8750New York CityDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051324-, Bluebird B8570Worried BluesDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051325-, Bluebird B8570Don’t You Love Your Daddy No More?DOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye. Fancourt notes that Wolfe/Lornell also incorrectly note this track for August 4, 1949.
051326-1, Bluebird B8750You Can’t Lose-A Me ChollyDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye. Fancourt notes that Wolfe/Lornell also incorrectly note this track for August 4, 1949.
051327-1, Victor unissuedGrey GooseDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051327-2, Victor 27267Grey Goose (Take 2)DOCD-5461in: Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051328-1, Victor unissuedDidn’t Ol‘ John Cross The Water?DOCD-5411RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051329-1, Victor 27267Stew BallDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051330-, Victor unissuedTake This HammerDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051331-, Victor unissuedCan’t You Line ‚EmDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye
051332-Julianne JohnsonRCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye; RCA 50957 notes it as „051332-1“
051333-1, Victor 27266Ham An‘ EggsDOCD-5227RCA 50957in: Wolfe/Lornell; Dixon/Godrich/Rye

Complete Blues Bio-Discographies Update: Lucille Hegamin

The Complete Blues Discographies were updated with Lucille Hegamin as a second entry.

Lucille Hegamin

Lived 1894–1970, recorded 1920–1932, 1961–62.

Complete Recorded Works in Chronological Order: Vol. 1 (1920-1922) (Document DOCD-5419)
Complete Recorded Works, Vol.2 (1922-1923) (Document DOCD-5420)
Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 3 (1923-1932) (Document DOCD-5421)
Lucille Hegamin Volume 4: Alternative Takes & Remaining Titles (1920-1926) (Document DOCD-1011)

For her rare 1960s appearances, check the respective albums, one under ALBERTA HUNTER and one under VICTORIA SPIVEY

Lucille Hegamin’s complete recordings

Complete Blues Bio-Discographies: Mamie Smith

Started to transfer my „Complete Blues Discographies“-project from RateYourMusic to this site. We start with Mamie Smith. I’ll update the site slowly and will post updated entries on the blog.

Mamie Smith

Lived 1883–1946, recorded 1920–1942.

„The earliest surviving commercial recordings of black roots music were made by Okeh Records supervisor Fred Hagar (sometimes spelled Hager) and Ralph Peer, his assistant at the time, who recorded Mamie Smith in 1920. Smith was neither a blues specialist nor a southerner. She was a stage singer from Ohio, and the impetus to record her came from black songwriter Perry Bradford, who believed a female vocalist could sell records – and Bradford tunes – to both northern blacks and southern whites.“

(Epperson, Bruce: More Important Than the Music. A History of Jazz Discography. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press 2013, 91)

Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 1: 1920-1921 (Document DOCD-5357)
Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 2: 1921-1922 (Document DOCD-5358)
Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 3: 1922-1923 (Document DOCD-5359)
Complete Recorded Works, Vol. 4: 1923-1942 (Document DOCD-5360)

Mamie Smith’s complete recordings

Lead Belly Discography: Updates

The single features take „SC-261“, not take „SC-261-1“

There have been some updates to my Lead Belly Discography. Some inconsistencies were found concerning the «Irene»-versions from the session from July or August 1943, with the call numbers «SC-261-1» and «SC-261» (both found on DOCD-5227) and an alleged «Irene»-version from the session «ca. February 1947», on DOCD-5568.

I thank Tim Dickinson for pointing out the irregularities.

The new and rectified situation is this: The «Irene»-version «SC-261-1» (with Sonny Terry on harp who is not «SC-261») is found on DOCD-5227, DOCD-5568 and SFW 40201. All discographical information points to this take being from the «July or August 1943» session. Confusion arises because DOCD-5568 claims February 1947 as a recording date for a lot of takes that are in fact from 1941 or 1943, respectively. These informations seem largely false, criticized by professional discographers. There is no «Irene»-version from February 1947 (as DOCD-5568 claims).

Although being the identical take, the «Irene»-version on DOCD-5227 is longer than the tracks on DOCD-5568 and SFW 40201 – this is because the latter are being faded out while the track on DOCD-5227 has a doctored, artificially enlengthend ending.

This detail raises are larger point: It will be necessary to go through all of the tracks on DOCD-5568, because the information there seems incorrect to a degree that we’ll have to identify each track aurally, through comparative close listening. These mistakes have been known for years, judging by Fancourt/McGrath’s discography The Blues Discography 1943–1970 (2006), but the Document Records-website still touts this as an «undiscovered session» from 1947. I’m also interested to know why DOCD-5227 includes a doctored version of otherwise available takes. The Document Records label usually didn’t operate like this.

Along with these changes, I made several other minor corrections that are part of the process; I won’t line them out here.

Lead Belly’s „Irene“ and its lyrical variants of the chorus: Kissing, getting, guessing and seeing.

Ramsey, Frederic Jr.: Liner notes for Leadbelly’s Early Recordings, Legacy Volume 3 (Folkways FA 2024, 1951).

Let’s talk about Lead Belly and his song «Irene, Goodnight», alternatively called «Goodnight, Irene». I’ll just refer to it as «Irene» here.

The question that interests us here is simple: What exactly does Lead Belly sing in the chorus’s last line? Is it: «I get you in my dreams»? «I guess you’re in my dreams»? «I kiss you in my dreams»?

It is really hard to make out in some takes and online ressources don’t seem to have a great consensus. There are different recordings with different plausible outcomes, we’ll take a look at that and some prominent cover versions below.

For those with little time, the «too long, didn’t read»-summary is this: Lead Belly mostly used «I get you in my dreams» for the early recordings (up until 1943), other times most likely an «I kiss(ed) you in my dreams». For later records (from 1944), he opted for something like «I guessed you in my dreams», which can be seen as a cleaned-up version of «I get» or «I kissed». Cover versions mostly use «I’ll see you in my dreams» (from the Weavers’s hit version) or, more in line with Lead Belly, «I get you in my dreams». For the fun details, read below.

As for the song: This is nowadays a classic of folk americana, a weird waltz that doesn’t quite fit into Lead Belly’s repertoire of blues, field hollers or folk songs, but does fit very well into his habit of soaking up whatever good song he could find and modify to make it his own. There is a cute family story about its origins – he supposedly made it up on the spot as a lullaby for his little baby niece. But this story is debunked – first, by his own uncle, Bob Ledbetter, who is known to have it sung before Lead Belly (and who says he learned it from his brother Terrell – you can hear this statement and Bob’s 1940 version on Document Records DOCD-5579), and secondly by Wolfe/Lornell who trace the song back even further to a 19th century popular song – but there is no written record. Wolfe/Lornell note:

There is evidence, nonetheless, that the chorus, at least, was circulating among other folksingers besides the Ledbetters. In November 1936 […], a Library of Congress field recording unit came upon Gilbert Fike in Little Rock, Arkansas. Fike was originally from Louisiana and sang a song called «The Girls Won’t Do to Trust,» [sic] which used a set of unusual misogynistic verses to set up a familiar chorus:

The girls will chew tobacco, but she will raise a fuss
The girls will dring good whiskey, boys, but they
Won’t do to trust

Irene, goodnight, Irene,
Irene, goodnight, my life,
I’ll kiss you in my dreams.

While it is possible that Fike had heard Huddie sing a version of the song […], it is probable that both Fike and Leadbelly heard the song as it circualted among rural singers in Texas and Louisiana.

(Wolfe/Lornell 1992, 53)

Well, the story goes on (there’s even earlier textual evidence), but so far this is pretty standard fair as far as the creation and development of folk songs go (for this, see also Ek 2014, and for a short summary online, see Lornell 2003). Let’s turn to the lyrics. What does Lead Belly do in his dream? «Get» Irene? «Kiss» Irene? «Guess»? The problem is that – especially on the early field recordings – it is really hard to make out what Lead Belly sings – and even in later versions, he uses a dialectal phrasing that sounds a lot like «giss» (hard g), like a mixture of «get» and «kiss». I think this is where the «guess» version comes from, which, spoiler, will turn out to be the least plausible one in my view.

Before we turn to the audio analysis, let’s get some clear textual evidence. As noted above, Wolfe/Lornell transcribe the songs origins as using the line «I kiss you in my dreams», and if you listen to Bob Ledbetter’s 1940-version, there is no doubt about it. This in itself stakes a strong claim for «kiss» instead of «get» or «guess» as an initial variant. Also, in the liner notes of the Folkways-LP Leadbelly’s Early Recordings, Legacy Volume 3 (Folkways FA 2024, 1951), Frederic Ramsey makes quite astute poetic observations about Lead Belly’s lyrical craft:

There is one quality of Leadbelly’s song that is only partially touched on in the Lomax book, how ever, but if we piece together bits of the Lomax story and combine them with the text and mood of Leadbelly’s songs, it can be sensed. There is in certain of the songs a mood of sleeplessness; in others, of dream, and trance. […] Where no escape is provided through sleep or dream, it is through alcolhol as in Roberta. The sleeplessness complements the dream, for it is a waking dream. It is a state where real and unreal are mixed, seen and unseen come together.

Ramsey 1951.

Ramsey then goes on to quote several other songs that reference this escape or wish fulfillment through (day dreams) and, on the occasion, transcribes the bit from «Irene» as:

«Irene, good night, Irene good night,
Good night Irene, good night Irene,
I kiss you in my dreams …» (Irene, FP 4)

Ramsey 1951.

Since Ramsey mentions Folkways FP 4 as the source, it is clear that he refers to the versions «SC-261» or «SC-261-1» from 1943, both on FP 4 (cf. my bio-discography of Lead Belly for such session-details). Now, Ramsey isn’t just anybody – he met and recorded Lead Belly in his late sessions. But apart from this supposed authority on the subject matter, I find his lyrical assembly of quotes about dreamy wish fulfillment persuasive: This again makes a stronger claim that Lead Belly dream-wishes that he «gets» or «kisses» Irene, rather than the line not fitting in this logic: «I guess you’re in my dreams».

But Wolfe/Lornell go on to say this:

The first time he recorded the song on disc, in 1933, he sang only two verses and two choruses, including the slightly ominous refrain «I’ll get you in my dreams». A year later he recorded it with four verses and four refrains.

Wolfe/Lornell 1992, 56.

I agree with their assessment that it sounds most like «get» in the 1933-chorus (version 120-A-1) which is the only complete chorus from that year that includes the line. Very generally, it coud be heard as «kiss» with a mumbled «s» in the end. But «get» is what they decide on, so let’s take that as corroborating evidence.

Now, if we turn to what is audible on Lead Belly’s own recordings, there is little doubt about one thing: On several occasions, he clearly sings «I get you in my dreams». If you compare my harmonisation below, you see that I think there is no doubt about him singing this line on the versions 124-A-2 (1934) – starting with the second chorus, as the first is unclear to me –, 124-B-1 (1934) and SC-261-1 (1943). As opposed to SC-261-1, version SC-261 (1943) gives you this weird «get/kiss»-mixture, so that must have been the one Ramsey refers to in his transcription above.

If we now take a close listen to his other versions, we most of the time end up with a word that sound like «giss» or even «gass». At one point I though this might be a dialectal version of «catch» (as in «I catss you in my dreams»), and it also occured to me that it could simply be a dialectal «I gets you» – because Lead Belly pretty systematically uses this conjugation on all other verbs in the song, «I lives», «I loves», «I haves», but I don’t know enough about the nature of Lead Belly’s idiom to know if this is even remotely plausible from a linguistic perspective. American dialectologists, please let me know if «I gets» was a plausible form.

Anyway, if you are primed by textual knowledge about the «kiss»-version, most of these can pretty reliably sound like «kiss». The version where I’m really struggling to hear a difference between «kiss you» and «guess you’re» is version 44-A (1935).

Two last points on the «I guess you’re in my dreams»-variant: First, I must say I can hear «guess(ed)» on some occasions, but I have to force myself to hear «you’re in my dreams», it is usually a clear «you in my dreams» to me. Also, in later versions (from 1944 onwards), it becomes a more clearly pronounced «I guessed you’re in my dreams». The past tense makes even less poetic sense to me – it seems like a bowlderized versions of «kissed» to me.

This is also why I don’t quote more of Lead Belly’s numerous later Irene-versions because even though he clearly gravitated to what sounds like «I guess you in my dreams», the problems fundamentally remain the same: Even with better and clearer recording (and Lead Belly having adapted his singing for white audiences), it is hard to know whether we’re dealing with a dialectal «kiss», «gets» or «guess» (compare especially version 413-3A, 1944). But more importantly: Folk lyrics change. At this point of Lead Belly’s career, we’re dealing with lyrical adaptation by Lead Belly for the audiences he played for. In the version FC 7533 (1945), I hear a clear «I guessed you in my dreams», but at that point he had also changed the lyrics of «take morphine and die» to «run away and fly». As in the Weavers’ version (see below), «getting» and «kissing» maybe wasn’t deemed suitable for mainstream (and children) audiences, so «guessing» might have become a valid option from 1944 onwards.

Taken all of this together, I’d say we end up with the following for the versions up until 1943:

  1. There is clear textual evidence for «I kiss you in my dreams», clear auditive evidence for it in Bob Ledbetter’s version and plausible auditive evidence in Lead Belly’s versions
  2. There is clear auditive evidence for the variant «I get you in my dreams». Some of Lead Belly’s versions leave no doubt.
  3. There is clear «poetic» evidence for both these variants, that is to say: they simply make sense, even in a larger thematic context of Lead Belly’s lyrical motifs
  4. There is some auditive, little poetic and no textual evidence for «I guess(ed) you(’re) in my dreams»

As corroborated evidence goes, I’d say Lead Belly sings a dialectal «I kiss» on some, and «I get» on other versions. Having said that, none of this disproves the «I guess you’re in my dreams»-version which remains plausible, why not? But it remains the least supported version by corroboration. As a last resort, I’d propose a dialectal «I gets», until an expert tells me that this form didn’t exist in the idioms spoken then.

Cover versions

The story could but doesn’t have to end here. How did prominent cover versions handle this textual unclarity? To spoil the harmonisation of lyrics I made below: There is a strong preference to use the completely different line «I’ll see you in my dreams» – this is easily explained as this stems from the cleaned-up version by the Weavers which was a 1950-hit that made the song as famous as it is nowadays in the first place. No kissing or «getting» in this mainstream folk context (cf. Ek 2014)! Even Mississippi John Hurt uses this line in his 1966-version – he announces it as «Lead Belly’s song» in the spoken intro, says that he «learned it off the record» and then continues to sing a song that structurally uses the lyrics from the Weavers’, not Lead Belly’s, version. So hilariously and wonderfully for folk authenticity and pop history, Mississippi John Hurt most likely learned this song from the Weavers’ hit record. Eric Clapton’s 2013 also shares this approach of using the song in the form it first entered the mass audience’s mind: as the Weavers-version.

Then, more reconstructionist artists like Ry Cooder (1976) and Tom Waits (2006) both opt for lyrical structures the pretty much exactly resemble one of Lead Belly’s version. Ry Cooder clearly goes with «I’ll get you in my dreams» in the chorus, while Tom Waits, in typical fashion, sort of recreates Lead Belly’s «kiss/get» mixture as «giss». Waits gives no lyrics in the liner notes for this song.

As an example of continued oral folk permutation, Dr. John’s version from 1992 just uses general musical and lyrical elements of the earlier version to come up with something very different. He turns the music into a big-bandish boogie and the song is not about yearning, scrounging, suicide and loss (with a dream as escape), but about desire, sex and partying, balling down the river while screaming «I wanna get you into my dream!» Of course, Dr. John pays his dues as a reconstructionist as well, at one point introducing a female choir which sings the exact lyrics of the Weavers’ chorus.

Well, that was fun, wasn’t it. For what I’ve exactly heard, uncertainties included, compare below harmonisation of the different versions I mentioned. Sources are below.

 Lead Belly 120-A-1Lead Belly 120-A-6Lead Belly 120-A-7Lead Belly 124-A-2 (1934)Lead Belly 124-B-1 (1934)Lead Belly 44-A (1935)Lead Belly 44-B-1 (1935)Irene SC-261-1 (1943)Irene (SC-261) (1943)Bob Ledbetter (1940)Weavers (1950)Mississippi John Hurt (1966)Ry Cooder (1976)Dr. John (1992)Tom Waits (2006)Eric Clapton (2013)
INTRO / CHORUSIrene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get/kiss (?) you in my dreams
ø Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get/kiss (?) you in my dreams
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams + Spoken Intro
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I get you in my dreams
øIrene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Irene goodnight, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
Spoken Intro + Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I will see you in my dream
øøIrene goodnight, Irene, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
ø
VERSE 1One day, one day, one day
Irene was a-walkin’ along
Last word that I heard her say
«I want you to sing one song»
I asked your mother for you
She told me that you was too young
I wish dear Lord that I’d never seen your face
I’m sorry  you ever was born
 Quit ramblin‘ and quit gamblin‘
Quit staying out late at night
Come home to your wife and your family
Sit down by the fireside bright
 I asked your mother for you
She told me you was too young
I wish dear Lord that I’d never seen your face
I’m sorry you ever was born
 Sometimes I lives in the country
Sometimes I live in town
Sometimes I have the great notion
Jumpin‘ in, into the river and drown
I asked your mother for you
She told me that you was too young
I wish dear Lord,that  I’d never seen your face
I’m sorry you ever was born
Last Saturday night I’ve got married
Me and my wife settled down
Me and my wife is parted now
I’m goin‘ take a stroll uptown
Last Saturday night I got married
Me and my wife settled down
Now me and my wife are parted
I’m gonna take another stroll down town
Sometimes I live in the country
Sometimes I lives in town
Sometime I take great notion
Jump in the river and drown
I asked your mother for you
She told me that you was too young
I wish dear Lord never have seen your face
And I’m sorry that you ever been born
Last night as I laid in my bed a-sleepin’
Last night as I laid down across my bed
Last night I had myself a nightmare
I had a dream, I had a dream
My little Irene was dead
Last Saturday night I got married
Me and my wife settled down
Now me and my wife are parted
I’m gonna take me a little stroll uptown
Last Saturday night I got married
Me and my wife settled down
Now me and my wife are parted
Gonna take another stroll down town
CHORUS Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
(scrambled)
(possible continuation of 120-A-6, scrambled)… in my dreamsIrene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you / guess you’re (?) in my dreams + Spoken Interlude
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I get you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss (?) you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Irene goodnight, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I will see you in my dream
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
I had to say now:
Goodnight Irene, goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I wanna get you, I wanna get you
Wanna get you into my dream
Irene goodnight, Irene, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
VERSE 2  Stop ramblin‘ and stop gamblin‘
Quit staying out late at night
Come home to your wife and your family
Sit down by the fireside bright
Last Friday night, I got married
Me and my wife settled down
Now me and my wife have parted
Gonna take me a stroll uptown
 Sometimes I lives in the country
Sometimes I lives in town
Sometimes I have the great notion
Jumpin‘ into the river and drown
 Stop ramblin‘ and stop gamblin‘
quit stayin‘ out late at night
Go home to your wife and your family
Sit down by the fireside bright
Sometimes I lives in the country
Sometimes I lives in town
Sometimes I haves the great notion
Jumpin‘ in, into the river and drown
Quit ramblin‘, quit gamblin‘
Quit staying out late at home(– at night!)
Come home to your wife and  family
Sit down by the fire[?]side bright
Sometimes I live in the country
Sometimes I live in town
Sometimes I take a great notion
To jump into the river and drown
Stop ramblin‘, stop gamblin‘
stop stayin‘ out late at night
Go home to your wife and family
And stay by the fireside bright
Sometimes I live in the country
Sometimes I lives in town
Sometimes I have a great notion
To jump into the river and drown
Last Saturday night we got married
Last Saturday night we sho’ got down
Last Saturday night we went sailin’ down the river
We swung that little boat
And we almost drowned
Sometimes I live in the country
Sometimes I live in town
Sometimes I take a great notion
To jump in the river and drown
Stop ramblin‘, stop your gamblin‘
stop stayin‘ out late at night
Come home to your wife and your family
And sit by the fire so bright
CHORUS  Irene goodnight, Irene (scrambled fade-out)Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you / guess you’re (?) in my dreams + Spoken Interlude
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I get you in my dreams (Fade out)
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss (?) you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Irene goodnight, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I will see you in my dream
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams (+ instrumental chorus)
I had to say now:
Goodnight Irene, goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I wanna get you, I wanna get you
Get you into my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
VERSE 3   I asked your mother for you
She told me that you was too young
I wish dear Lord that I’d never seen your face
 I’m sorry you ever was born
 You cause me to weep and you cause me to moan
You cause me to leave my home
The last words I heard her said
„I want you to sing this song“
  Stop ramblin‘ and stop gamblin‘
quit stayin‘ out late at night
Go home to your wife and your family
Sit down by the fireside bright
 Stop ramblin‘, stop your gamblin‘
stop stayin‘ out late at night
Go home to your wife and your family
Stay there by your fireside bright
øI loves Irene, God knows I do
Loves her till the sea runs dry
If Irene turns her back on me
I’m gonna take morphine and die
øI loves Irene, God knows I do
Loves her till the sea runs dry
If she ever loves another
I’m gonna take morphine and die
I loves Irene, God knows I do
Loves her till the rivers run dry
If Irene should ever turn her back on me
Gonna take morphine and die
CHORUS   Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you / guess you’re (?) in my dreams + Spoken Interlude
  Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss (?) you in my dreams
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams (Repeat + Fade-Out)
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I will see you in my dream
ø(Female choir:) Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnigt Irene, goodnight Irene
I will see you in my dream
Irene goodnight, Irene, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
VERSE 4   One day, one day, one day
Irene was a-walkin‘ along
Last words that I heard her say
„I want you to sing this song“
 Last Friday night, I got married
Me and my wife settled down
Now me and my wife have parted
Gonna take me a stroll uptown
  I loves Irene, God knows I do
Love her ‚til the sea run dry
If Irene turns her back on me
I’m gonna take morphine and die
   Stop ramblin‘ and stop gamblin‘
Quit stayin‘ out late at night
Come home into your wife and your family
Sit down by the fireside bright
Sometime I wanna drink
Sometime I wanna gamble
Sometime I wanna stay out all night long
Lord, but when I’m lovin’ my little Irene
I wanna love the girl
Love her on and on and on and on…
Stop your ramblin‘, stop your gamblin‘
Stop stayin‘ out late at night
Go home to your wife and your family
Sit down by the firelight
ø
CHORUS    ø (possible continuation of 124-A-2)Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you / guess you’re (?) in my dreams
      Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
Yeah yeah
Goodnight Irene, goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I wanna get you, I wanna get you
Get you into my dream
(Everybody!) Irene goodnight, Irene, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I kiss you in my dreams (Repetition + Fade-Out)
Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll see you in my dreams
VERSE 5    …And she caused me to moan
She caused me to leave my home
Last words that I heared her say
„I’m sorry you ever was known“
 ø         
CHORUS    Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
 (possible continuation / re-start of 44-A) Spoken Intro         
VERSE 7    I love Irene, God knows I do
Love her ‚til the sea runs dry
If Irene turns her back on me
I’m gonna take morphine and die
 I love Irene, God knows I do
Love her ‚til the sea run dry
If Irene turn her back on me
I’m gonna take morphine and die
         
CHORUS    Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I’ll get you in my dreams
 Irene goodnight, Irene goodnight
Goodnight Irene, goodnight Irene
I get you in my dreams + Spoken Interlude
         
       ø         
       Spoken Interlude + Hummed Chorus Ending         

Sources:

  • Ek, Kirstin: «A Precipice Between Deadly Perils»: American Folk Music and the Mass Media, 1933–1959. Dissertation University of Virginia 2014.
  • Lornell, Christopher «Kip»: «Goodnight, Irene»–Leadbelly (1933). Added to the National Registry: 2003. Essay by Christopher Lornell (guest post). Library of Congress. URL: http://www.loc.gov/static/programs/national-recording-preservation-board/documents/GoodnightIrene.pdf
  • Wolfe, Charles and Kip Lornell: The Life & Legend of Leadbelly. New York: Harper Collins 1992.
  • Ramsey, Frederic Jr.: Liner notes for Leadbelly’s Early Recordings, Legacy Volume 3 (Folkways FA 2024, 1951).

Die Schlägels

Diskographie

Mach mir bitte ’ne Freude (1963)

Ich hab sie da drüben stehen sehen
Trübsal
Anna (geh zu ihm)
Ketten
Jungs
Frag mich wieso
Mach mir bitte ’ne Freude
Na hopp, sei mein Schatz
P.S. Ich liebe dich
Baby, du bist es
Soll ich dir ein Geheimnis verraten?
Ein Hauch von Honig
Es gibt einen Ort
Zappeln und schreien

Mit den Schlägels (1963)

Dauert nicht mehr lang
Ich muss nur
Nerv nicht
Kleines Mädel
Dann kamst du
Bitte, Herr Briefträger
Stück mal’n rück, Beethoven!
Halt mich fest
Du hast mich in der Tasche
Ich will dein Kerl sein
Die ist von Grund auf böse
Kein zweites Mal
Knete

Eine Nacht aus hartem Tag (1964)

Eine Nacht aus hartem Tag
Hätte ich besser wissen sollen
Wenn ich mich
Ich find’s schon toll, nur mit dir zu tanzen
Und ich liebe sie
Sag mir warum
Kann mir keine Liebe kaufen
Rund um die Uhr
Dann heul ich halt
Was wir heute gesagt haben
Wenn ich nach Hause komme
Das kannst du nicht machen
Ich komme wieder

Schlägels im Ausverkauf (1964)

Keine Antwort
Ich bin eine Null
Meine Flamme trägt schwarz
Sexmusik
Ich wende mich nach der Sonne
Herr Mondlicht
Südwindstadt / Hejo!
Acht Tage die Woche
Worte der Liebe
Honigmaus, hör auf
Jedes kleinste Ding
Ich will hier nicht die Spassbremse sein
Was du da machst
Alle wollen meine Honigmaus sein

Hilfe! (1965)

Hilfe!
Letzte Nacht
Du musst deine Verliebtheit überspielen
Ich brauche dich
Ein anderes Mädel
Du wirst dieses Mädel verlieren
Fahrschein
Sei einfach du selbst
Es ist nur Liebe
Du magst mich zu sehr
Sag mir, was du siehst
Ich hab grad ein Gesicht gesehen
Gestern
Irre Fräulein Ira

Gummi-Seele (1965)

Sei mein Chauffeur
Norwegisch Holz (Diese Maus ist raus)
Du willst dich nicht mit mir treffen
Nirgendmann
Denk dir’s selbst
Das Wort
Michaela
Was geht?
Mädel
Ich durchschau dich
In meinem Leben
Wart mal!
Wenn ich wen bräuchte
Renn um dein Leben

Drehpistole (1966)

Steuerinspektor
Eleanor Bergkammdorf
Ich schlafe doch nur
Unbedingt, dass du
Hier, dort und überall
Gelbes Unterseeboot
Hat sie gesagt, hat sie gesagt
Guter Tag Sonnenschein
Und dein Vogel kann zwitschern
Für niemanden
Doktor Robert
Ich möchte dir erzählen
Muss dich in mein Leben kriegen
Morgen weiss nicht

Oberfeldwebel Pfeffers Tanzorchester der einsamen Herzen (1967)

Oberfeldwebel Pfeffers Tanzorchester der einsamen Herzen
Mit ein wenig Unterstützung meiner Freunde
Lucia im Himmel mit Diamanten
Wird besser
Ein Loch stopfen
Sie verlässt Heim und Herd
Zugunsten von Herrn Drachen gibt’s
Selbst in dir, ausser dir selbst
Wenn ich vierundsechzig bin
Schöne Rita
Guten Morgen Guten Morgen
Oberfeldwebel Pfeffers Tanzorchester der einsamen Herzen (Zugabe)
Ein Tag im Leben

Magische Mysteriösitätentour (1967)

Magische Mysteriösitätentour
Der Narr auf dem Hügel
Fliegen
Blauhäherweg
Deine Mutter sollte das wissen
Ich bin das Walross („Nein, bist du nicht!“ sagte die kleine Nicole)
Hallo, und tschüss
Erdbeerfelder für immer
Pfennigschneise
Schatz, du bist Krösus
Alles, was du brauchst, ist Liebe

Die Schlägels (1969)

Zurück in der UdSSR
Liebe Umsicht
Glasszwiebel
Hoppe Hoppe Reiter
Wilde Honigmaus
Die Fortsetzungsgeschichte von Plattenbau-Didi
Während meine Gitarre sanft wimmert
Glück ist eine warme Knarre
Martha mein Liebling
Ich bin so müde
Amsel
Schweinchen
Wolfi Waschbär
Lass mich nicht links liegen
Wieso machen wir’s nicht mitten auf der Strasse?
Ich werde es tun
Julia
Geburtstag
Dein Blues, wa?
Mutter Naturs Sohn
Alle haben etwas zu verstecken ausser mir und mein Affe
Maharishi
Rutschbahn
Lang, lang, lang
Umsturz Eins
Honigmaus
Savoyer Trüffelpraline
Weine, Baby, weine
Umsturz Neun
Gute Nacht

Gelbes Unterseeboot (1969)

Gelbes Unterseeboot
Nur ein nördliches Lied
Jetzt alle zusammen
Hey Bulldogge
Es ist alles zu viel
Alles, was du brauchst, ist Liebe
Pfefferland
See der Zeit
See der Löcher
See der Monster
Marsch der Miesepeter
Pfefferland geschrottet
Gelbes Unterseeboot in Pfefferland

Everest (1969)

Gleichzeitig kommen
Ein gewisses Etwas
Alfreds Silberhammer
Oh! Liebling
Tintenfischs Garten
Ich will dich (sie ist so krass)
Hier kommt die Sonne
Weil
Du gibst mir nie dein Geld
Sonnenkönig
Fieser Herr Senf
Polyethylen Paula
Sie kam durchs Badezimmerfenster
Goldener Schlummer
Die Bürde schultern
Das Ende
Ihre Majestät

Lass es werden (1970)

Wir beide
Ponies pudeln
Durchs Universum hindurch
Ich Mir Meins
Lass dich gehen!
Lass es werden
Cornelia Kramer
Ich hab so’n Gefühl
Der nach dem Neun-nach-Neuner
Die lange und gewundene Strasse
Schmoll dir nach
Zurück

Dies ist die komplette (offizielle) Diskographie der bekannten Band Die Schlägels (Friedrich, August, Wilhelm und Ringo).

A list of historically important jazz discographies

According to:

Epperson, Bruce D.: More Important Than the Music. A History of Jazz Discography. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press 2013.

Where do you look up information about jazz, blues, gospel and all that ja…ngling music, I mean besides just googling yourself to death in a pool of abundant, half-reliable information? Where do you go where the information, however correct it might be, doesn’t feel sticky? In discographies? Which ones? Epperson’s book on the topic, More Important Than the Music (2013), is fascinating. Sure, from one perspective, it gives you an abundance of facts, of nerdy information about nerds and their nerdy obsessions, it painstakingly records who published which list of jazz records at what time under what circumstances. That is the purely fact-driven aspect. On the other hand, it introduces you to a world of people whipped by their desires, bound together in love and hatred for the topic and for each other, stuck in decade-long feuds about plagiarism, money, mutual criticism and appraisal, a world full of projects only making it from the letters A to K because of over-ambition, corporate enemies or new technology. A world full of hope and despair, of half-arbitrary decisions about race, genre, cut-off dates, band formats and sound formats, driven by personal interest of the respective researcher. A world of necessary, but neither academically nor financially rewarded research, with no sustainable way to make it profitable. I don’t know if Epperson realises just how hilarious his chosen quote to end the book is, where Howard Rye says:

The single biggest factor in jazz discography is that neither Brian Rust nor Jørgen Jepsen gave a damn about the needs of those who wouldn’t buy their books!

(Rye in Epperson 2013, 212).

Talk about an exclamation point to end a book about, well, lists. This is not how a tragedy ends (or a comedy, or a romance) – this is how you end a farce, a book with farcical subject matter, intentionally or not. As I said somewhere else: A discography is but a list made by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. (Including myself, of course, although the only ‚discographies‘ I create consist of second-hand information and aim at cutting the corners of availability).

Below is a list of the jazz discographies that Epperson discusses more than just in passing and around which he constructs entire chapters or paragraphs. Epperson’s book is an eloquent, informative and fluid (and at times hilarious) read from a historical/narrative perspective, but it doesn’t have registers telling you which discographies or names are discussed on what pages, and which chapters and paragraphs deal with which time spans exactly etc. (actually, in the text, the chapter titles do indicate time spans, but they don’t do this where it would be most useful: in the „contents“ overview). So I assembled a list according to Epperson’s chronology with some of the crucial quotes for each discography. The list only treats general jazz (and blues) discographies, meaning there are no specialized discographies: no label discographies, no single-artist bio-discographies, no solographies (yes, those exist), no national discographies and so forth.

Since discographies tend to have shifting titles, different editors/authors, changing time spans and volatile edition histories, I somewhat lump the titles and publication years for the discographies together. The gist of each work’s identity will be researchable with this, if you want to dig into it. Or just read the book.

Chapter 2.2:

Schleman, Hilton: Rhythm on Record (1936)

The lack of session-level information has led many discographers to relegate Rhythm on Record to protodiscography, leaving the honors of „first discography“ to Delaunay’s Hot Discography, which appeared three months later.However, within the limited goals he set for himself, Schleman was largely successful, an discographers were still using his book some sixty-five years later.

(Epperson 2013, 29)

Chapter 2.3:

Delaunay, Charles: Hot Discography (1936)

„Charles Delaunay is the undoubted father of discography as we know it today,“ adds Sheatsley. „It was he who first saw and utilized the importance of master numbers.“

(Epperson 2013, 38)

Chapter 3.1:

Blackstone, Orin: Index to Jazz (1945–1950)

Therefore he stuck to an alphabetical-by-artist structure from start to finish, unlike Delaunay’s affinities of style arrangement.

(Epperson 2013, 51)

Chapter 3.2:

Delaunay, Charles: New Hot Discography (1948)

Recognizably a Delaunay product, it retained the affinities of style approach for musicians recorded before 1930 but abandoned it for later artists, who were grouped in straight alphabetical order in a long section of their own.

(Epperson 2013, 56)

One other prescient feature of New Hot Discography bears mentioning in some detail. Each issue (usually, but not always, a 78 rpm, two-sided single) was assigned a „discode“, a Delaunay-assigned serial number comprising a number, letter, and number.

(Epperson 2013, 59)

Chapter 3.4:

Carey, David, Albert McCarthy (and Ralph Venable): The Directory of Recorded Jazz and Swing Music [The Jazz Directory] (1949–1955)

McCarthy, Albert and Dave Carey: The Directory of Recorded Jazz and Swing Music Inlcuding Gospel and Blues Records [The Jazz Directory]. (1955–1957)

The discographic format wasn’t radically different from that of the contemporaneous Blackstone or Delaunay works, but it was crisper and clearer, mostly because, once and for all, it subordinated matrix numbers to recording sessions arranged in a chronological format.

(Epperson 2013, 69)

Chapter 3.5:

Delaunay, Charles and Kurt Mohr: Hot discographie encyclopédique (1951–1952)

The format of Hot discographie encyclopédique (HDE) was a complete break with any of Delaunay’s previous works and bore a strong resemblance to Carey and McCarthy’s series, so it instantly became known as the „French Jazz Directory„. Delaunay admitted that the times had changed and „such a work as this must be objective, not selective.“

(Epperson 2013, 76)

Chapter 4.1:

Rust, Brian: Jazz Records, A–Z (1961)

Although this session-based layout was not radically different from that in The Jazz Directory, the refinements he did develop ended up making Jazz Records, A–Z so superior to anything that came before that it was eventually called the Rust format.

(Epperson 2013, 85)

Where did you go for availability, not history? […] Even Malcolm Shaw, who edited the latest (2002) edition of Rust’s Jazz Records, A–Z, admits that „JR [Jazz Records] as it stands is probably due for a total reconsideration of the concept“.

(Epperson 2013, 4)

Chapter 4.2:

Jepsen, Jørgen Grunnet: Jazz Records, 1942–196X (1963–1970)

Survival demanded a relatively straightforward editorial policy. „This is not a complete listing of all jazz records,“ cautioned Jepsen. „This is only an attempt to list all the records known to the editor and his collaborators.“

(Epperson 2013, 89)

Chapter 4.3:

Godrich, John and Robert Dixon: Blues and Gospel Records, 1902–1942 (1964, 1969)

Dixon, Robert and John Godrich: Blues and Gospel Records, 1902–1943 (1982)

– and Howard Rye: Blues and Gospel Records, 1890–1943 (1997)

The decision to include all existing material without differentiating whether it was commercial or archival (and whether or not it was relevant to record collectors) proved to be the single most important metric by which Blues and Gospel Records came to be evaluated over the years.

(Epperson 2013, 94)

Chapter 4.5:

Leadbitter, Mike and Neil Slaven: Blues Records, 1943–1966: An Encyclopedic Discography to More Than Two Decades of Recorded Blues (1968)

–: Blues Records, 1943–1970: A Selective Discography. Vol. 1, A–K. (1987)

–: Blues Records, 1943–1970: A Selective Discography. Vol. 2, L–Z. (1994).

The few who did review the 1987 revision generally considered it a significant improvement over its 1968 predecessor. Everyone agreed that its new subtitle A Selective Discography, was a far more realistic description that the first edition’s unfortunate Encyclopedic Discography label.

(Epperson 2013, 101)

Chapter 5.1:

Bruyninckx, Walter: 50 Years of Recorded Jazz. 1917–1967. (ca. 1968–1971)

–: 60 Years of Recorded Jazz. 1917–1977 (ca. 1977–1980)

–: 70/75 Years of Recorded Jazz. (late 1980s to early 1990s)

– and Domi Truffandier: 85 Years of Recorded Jazz. (CD-ROM 2003)

„Despite his continued plagiarism,“ recalled librarian Matthew Snyder, „by the late 1980’s [sic] the general opinion on Bruyninckx appeared to be that the improved quality of his work, combined with his extensive coverage, had produced the best available jazz discography.“

(Epperson 2013, 113)

Chapter 5.2:

Raben, Erik: Jazz Records, 1942–80: A Discography. (1989–2007, A–G. Unfinished)

Everyone agreed that its musicians index, included at the end of each volume and not as an appendix at the end of the series, was much needed and badly overdue […].

(Epperson 2013, 117)

Chapter 5.3:

Lord, Tom: The Jazz Discography. (1992–2002)

„It is possible that Lord’s project has already taken over the market for Raben’s volumes, and that Raben’s project will die. This possibility, in combination with the frustrations of using Bruyninckx’s paperbacks and his inept marketing of 70 Years, may mean that that, in jazz discography’s own little version of a hostile corporate takeover, Lord’s project has already emerged the victor.“ [Kernfeld/Rye]

(Epperson 2013, 125)

Lord was a businessman, a marketer who was peddling a product – the others were either professional academics or amateur scholars undertaking research. […] „Lord is more of a collator than a researcher,“ observed Edward Berger […].

(Epperson 2013, 126)

(note that this Tom Lord has no relation to the Tom Lord who made 1976’s Clarence Williams-discography)

The notable Websites and Online Articlesthat Epperson lists in his bibliography are:

http://allmusic.com/

http://jazzstudiesonline.org

http://www.jazzarcheology.com

http://www.jazz.com

http://www.redsaunders.com

http://victor.library.ucsb.edu